Overview of proteins

Last updated on November 19, 2018 at 17:16

Apoptosis and cell death related

Protein Function Involved in disease or pathway
APAF-1 Forms a pro-apoptotic complex with cytochrome c called the apoptosome Apoptosis, intrinsic pathway
BAD, BAX, BAK Pro-apoptotic proteins Apoptosis, intrinsic pathway
Bcl-2 Anti-apoptotic protein Anti-apoptosis
Caspases Cascade that activates apoptosis Apoptosis
Caspase-dependent DNase (CAD) Cleaves DNA, activated by caspases Apoptosis
Cathepsins Proteases, degrade proteins Involved in autophagy
DIABLO, AIF, EndoG, cytochrome c Pro-apoptotic proteins released from mitochondria Apoptosis, intrinsic pathway
RIPK1, RIPK3 Form a complex called necrosome Necroptosis

Cell cycle related (see also tumor suppressors)

Protein Function Involved in disease or pathway
ATM, ATR Activated by MRN, activates p53 Cell cycle regulation
CDK Regulates cell cycle together with cyclin Cell cycle regulation
Cyclin Regulates cell cycle together with CDK Cell cycle regulation
DBRP Recognizes destruction box, causes degradation of cyclin Cell cycle regulation
E2F Transcription factor Cell cycle
Jun, Fos Transcription factors Cell cycle regulation
MRN Detects double-stranded DNA damage, activates ATM and ATR DNA damage detection

Extracellular matrix, cell membrane and cytoskeleton related

Protein Function Involved in disease or pathway
Actin (F-actin) Component of microfilaments
Agrin Formation of neuromuscular junction
Arp2/3 complex Control branching of actin
Cadherin Cell adhesion Cell adhesion
Desmin Component of intermediate filaments in myocytes
Elastin Component of elastic fibers
Fibrillin Component of microfibrils
Flippases Move lipids to the inner leaflet Cell membrane homeostasis
Floppases Move lipids to the outer leaflet. Belongs to the ABC transporter family. Cell membrane homeostasis
Formin Activates polymerization of actin
GFAP Component of intermediate filaments in glial cells
Integrins Adhesion molecules binding cells to ECM Cell adhesion
Keratin type I and II Component of intermediate filaments in epithelial cells
Kinesins, dyneins Motor proteins that travel on microtubules
Laminin Component of basal lamina Component of basal lamina
Lamin Component of intermediate filaments in nucleus Charcot-Marie-Tooth syndrome
MMP2, MMP9 Cleave gelatin and collagen type IV Matrix metalloproteases
MMP3 Activates other MMPs Matrix metalloproteases
Neurexin, neuroligin Adhesion molecules found in synaptic cleft Cell adhesion
Neurofilaments Component of intermediate filaments in neurons
Periferin Component of intermediate filaments in neurons
Plasmin Activates MMP3 Matrix metalloproteases
Rac Activates WAVE and cortactin
Tau Stabilizes microtubules in nervous system Taupathies, Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s
TIMPs Inhibit MMPs Matrix metalloproteases
Type I collagen Found in scar tissue
Type IV collagen Found in basal lamina
Type XI collagen Found in cartilage
Vimentin Component of intermediate filaments in every cell at the beginning of differentiation
WASP, WAVE, cortactin Activates Arp2/3 complex

Metabolism related

Protein Function Involved in disease or pathway
Aquaporin 2 Water transporter in the kidney, activated by PKA in response to AVP Water reabsorption
CFTR Chloride ion channel. Member of ABC transporter family. Cystic fibrosis
GLUT5 Fructose transporter in enterocyte Dietary fructose absorption
HbA1c Hemoglobin with glucose attached to β-chain. Correlates with long-term blood glucose average Laboratory analysis
Perilipin A protein that covers lipid droplets in adipose tissue which prevents enzymes from degrading the lipids. Lipolysis
PEX5, PEX7 Peroxisome surface receptor, recognized PTS1 and PTS2 Protein transport to the peroxisomes
SGLT1 Glucose and galactose transporter in enterocyte Dietary glucose and galactose absorption
SGLT2 Glucose transporter in kidney Glucose reabsorption

Neurodegenerative disease-related

Protein Function Involved in disease or pathway
APP (amyloid precursor protein) Precursor of amyloid plaques Alzheimer’s, amyloidosis
α-Synuclein Precursor of Lewy bodies Parkinson’s, others
DJ-1 Inhibits proteasome when mutated Parkinson’s
Frataxin Formation of iron-sulphur clusters Friedreich’s ataxia
Huntingtin Causes Huntington’s when its gene contains too many CAG sequences Huntington’s
LRRK2 Disrupts mitochondria when mutated Parkinson’s
Parkin Inhibits proteasome when mutated Parkinson’s
PINK-1 Disrupts mitochondria when mutated Parkinson’s
PrP Prion disease precursor in human Prion disease
Tau Stabilizes microtubules in nervous system Taupathies, Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s

Oxidative stress and ER-related

Protein Function Involved in disease or pathway
Ask1 Activates MAPK pathway in response to oxidative stress Response against oxidative stress
Fyn Inhibits Nrf2 during chronic oxidative stress Response against oxidative stress
IKKβ Activates NF-κB in response to oxidative stress Response against oxidative stress
IRE1, PERK, ATF6 Detect accumulation of misfolded proteins in ER Unfolded protein response
Keap1 Inhibits Nrf2 Response against oxidative stress
Nrf2 Transcription factor for anti-oxidant processes. Response against oxidative stress
SIRT1, SIRT2, SIRT3 Decrease ROS production, other beneficial functions, activates FOXO Response against oxidative stress
XBP1, PERK, CHOP Activates by accumulation of misfolded proteins in ER. Activate BAD Unfolded protein response

Plasma proteins

Protein Function Involved in disease or pathway
Albumin Transport molecule, buffering, maintaining oncotic pressure  
α1-antitrypsin Inhibit neutrophil proteases
α1-fetoprotein (AFP) Fetal form of albumin
Ceruloplasmin Copper transport in blood, ROS removal
C-reactive protein Opsonizes bacteria, activates complement system Immune system
Haptoglobin Binds free hemoglobin in blood Hemoglobin recirculation
Transferrin Iron transport in blood

Rheumatoid arthritis

Protein Function Involved in disease or pathway
Anti-CCP Antibodies against citrullinated proteins Rheumatoid arthritis
PAD Citrullinates arginine-residues on proteins. Rheumatoid arthritis
Rheumatoid factor Autoantibody, targets Fc region of IgG Rheumatoid arthritis

Transcription factors

Protein Function Involved in disease or pathway
FOXO Inactivated by PKB and activated by SIRT1, activates transcription of G6Pase and PEPCK
mTOR Activated by PKB, activates protein synthesis
Nrf2 Transcription factor for anti-oxidant processes. Response against oxidative stress

Tumor suppressors and proto-oncogenes

Protein Function Involved in disease or pathway
ErbB EGF receptor Cancer, proto-oncogene
p16 Involved in senescence. Tumor suppressor, senescence
p21 (cip) CDK-cyclin heterodimer inhibitor Tumor suppressor, senescence
p27 (kip) CDK-cyclin heterodimer inhibitor Tumor suppressor
p53 Transcription factor, increases transcription of p21 Tumor suppressor, senescence
PTEN Reverses the action of PI3K, so it inhibits PDK1 and therefore PKB. Tumor suppressor
Rab GLUT4 translocation to cell membrane Cancer, proto-oncogene
Ran Transport in and out of nucleus Cancer, proto-oncogene
Ras Insulin-mediated cell proliferation Cancer, proto-oncogene
Retinoblastoma protein (pRb) Inhibit E2F when double-stranded DNA damage is present Tumor suppressor
Rho Cell cycle Cancer, proto-oncogene

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