Theoretical exam topics

Last updated on November 19, 2018 at 17:16

  • 1. The objectives of pathology. Autopsy and surgical pathology. Pathology as a subject
  • 2. Postmortal changes. Cell injury and cell death. Causes of cell injury
  • 3. Necrosis. Ultrastructural, light microscopical and gross changes
  • 4. Patterns of coagulation type necrosis. Organ examples
  • 5. Patterns of liquefactive type necrosis. Organ examples
  • 6. Caseous necrosis and adiponecrosis
  • 7. Apoptosis morphology, pathomechanism
  • 8. The definition and types of degenerations. Parenchymal and fatty degeneration. Organ examples
  • 9. Pathomorphology, pathogenesis and complications of atherosclerosis
  • 10. Histochemical characteristics of the different pigments. Exogenous pigments
  • 11. Hemoglobinogenic pigments I. Causes and forms of jaundice
  • 12. Hemoglobinogenic pigments II. Pathological forms of iron storage
  • 13. Endogenous non-hemoglobinogenic pigments. Lipofuscin, melanin, homogentizic acid
  • 14. Dystrophic and metastatic calcification. Organ manifestations
  • 15. Pathomechanism and clinicopathological forms of stone formation
  • 16. General characterisation of amyloidosis. Physico-chemical, ultrastructural and histochemical nature of amyloid. Types of amyloid
  • 17. Pathology of obesity and diabetes
  • 18. Causes of atrophy; general gross morphology and microscopical characteristics. Pathomechanism of atrophy. Hypoplasia, aplasia, agenesia. Osteoporosis.
  • 19. Definition, types and organ examples of hyperplasia
  • 20. Definition of hypertrophy and characteristics
  • 21. Left ventricular hypertrophy. Causes, sequential compensatory changes and functional consequences
  • 22. Cor pulmonale chronicum
  • 23. Definition of edema, pathomechanism (Starling law), clinical forms
  • 24. Classification of hemorrhages based on pathomechanism
  • 25. Thrombosis and embolus. Definitions, causes, types and clinical consequences
  • 26. Causes, types and pathomechanisms of shock. Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)
  • 27. Clinicopathological classification of hypertension and complications
  • 28. Vascular and cellular mechanisms and mediators of acute inflammation
  • 29. Clinicopathological classification of acute inflammation. Organ examples.
  • 30. Definition, causes, cellular and humoral mechanisms of chronic inflammation
  • 31. Pathogenesis and clinicopathology of tuberculosis
  • 32. Granuloma. Granulomatous inflammation
  • 33. Type I. and type II. hypersensitivity reactions, mechanisms and related disorders
  • 34. Type III. and type IV. hypersensitivity reactions, related disorders
  • 35. Pathogenesis of autoimmune disorders
  • 36. Systemic lupus erythematodes (SLE)
  • 37. AIDS. Transplantation immunity
  • 38. Neoplasia, nomenclature, definitions. Terminology (nomenclature) of neoplasms
  • 39. Definition of metaplasia, dysplasia and their relation to neoplasia. Organ examples. Hamartoma and choristoma
  • 40. General characteristics of benign and malignant tumours. Anaplasia. Rate of tumour cell growth. Local spread and metastasis of malignant neoplasms. Types of metastases.
  • 41. Epidemiology of cancers. Incidence and mortality. Changes in death rates of cancers in the last decades
  • 42. Oncogenes, protooncogenes, oncoproteins. Growth factor and growth factor receptor oncogenes (RET, KIT, PDGFR). Overexpression of normal growth factor receptors (ERBB1, ERBB2). Organ examples.
  • 43. Oncogenes and oncoproteins in signal transduction: RAS and RAS-signal proteins. Examples for oncogene with non-receptor tyrosine kinase function.
  • 44. The myc oncogene. Types and their changes and role in tumours (c-myc, n-myc). Cell cycle regulators: p16 gene
  • 45. Tumour suppressor genes I. RB and p53. Their role in tumorigenesis. Organ examples
  • 46. Tumour suppressor genes II. NF1, NF2, VHL, WT-1 and WT-2. Related syndromes
  • 47. Chemical and radiation cancerogenesis. The multistep carcinogenesis of colorectal adenocarcinoma
  • 48. Microbial carcinogenesis. RNA and DNA viruses. Helicobacter pylori
  • 49. Clinical aspects of neoplasm. Paraneoplastic syndromes, tumour markers
  • 50. Grading and staging. Laboratory diagnosis of cancer
  • 51. Angina pectoris, chronic ischemic heart disease, sudden cardiac death
  • 52. Clinicopathology of acute myocardial infarction
  • 53. Pathology of the valvular disorders (inflammatory and degenerative ones)
  • 54. Cardiomyopathies. Tumors and tumor-like conditions of the heart
  • 55. Myocarditis. Pathology of the pericardium
  • 56. Congenital heart diseases
  • 57. Types and clinicopathology of the aneurysms
  • 58. Pathogenesis, classification and clinicopathology of vasculitides. Vascular tumours
  • 59. Diseases of the upper airways
  • 60. Congenital anomalies of the lungs, atelectasis, acute lung injury
  • 61. Infectious disorders of the lower airways
  • 62. General characteristics and types of chronic obstructive lung diseases
  • 63. Chronic restrictive lung diseases
  • 64. Vascular diseases of the lung
  • 65. Lung tumors
  • 66. Pleural and mediastinal disorders

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