Theoretical exam topics

  • 1. Developmental malformations of the face. Inflammatory and tumorous diseases of the oral cavity
  • 2. Pathology of the salivary glands
  • 3. Diseases of the oesophagus
  • 4. Inflammatory and ulcerative disorders of the stomach
  • 5. The benign and malignant tumours of the stomach
  • 6. Malformations of the small intestine. Malabsorption. Tumors of the small intestine
  • 7. Diverticulosis of the colon. Pathology of colonic polyps
  • 8. Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis
  • 9. Colorectal malignancies and their relationship to polypous lesions
  • 10. Diseases of the appendix and the peritoneum
  • 11. Hepatic lesions caused by circulatory disorders. Nonviral inflammatory diseases of the liver. Drug hepatopathies
  • 12. Acute viral hepatitis (aetiology, pathomorphology, complicated forms)
  • 13. Chronic viral hepatitis (aetiology, types), pathomorphology and differential diagnostics, detection of virus associated antigens and their significance)
  • 14. Cirrhosis and hepatic failure
  • 15. Tumours and tumorlike conditions of the liver
  • 16. Cholelithiasis (aetiology and complications) and pathology of the extrahepatic biliary tract
  • 17. Acute and chronic pancreatitis. Tumours of the pancreas
  • 18. Renal failure, uraemia. Congenital malformations and cystic diseases of the kidney
  • 19. Glomerulonephritis. Classification according to clinical symptoms. Histologic alterations in glomerulonephritides.
  • 20. Nephrosis syndrome: minimal change, membranous glomerulonephritis, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis.
  • 21. Nephritic syndrome (acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis). Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis. Diabetic nephropathy.
  • 22. IgA nephropathy, chronic glomerulonephritis. Glomerular lesions associated with systemic disorders (SLE, Henoch-Schönlein purpura, Wegener’s granulomatosis, amyloidosis)
  • 23. Acute tubular necrosis (ischaemic and toxic). Drug-induced (hypersensitive) interstitial nephritis, analgetic nephropathy, urate nephropathy. Acute and chronic pyelonephritis (pathogenesis, morphology, consequences and clinical course)
  • 24. Benign and malignant nephrosclerosis and diffuse cortical necrosis. Urolithiasis and obstructive uropathy.
  • 25. Renal tumours (oncocytoma, renocellular cancer, Wilms tumor, urothelial carcinoma of the renal pelvis)
  • 26. Cystitides, tumours of the bladder and ureter
  • 27. Reactive lymph node changes
  • 28. Indolent B cell lymphomas (FL, CLL, MCL, MZL)
  • 29. High grade B cell lymphomas (BL, DLBCL). Plasma cell neoplasms
  • 30. Hodgkin lymphoma
  • 31. T/NK cell lymphomas
  • 32. Nonneoplastic bone marrow disorders (anaemia, leukocytosis and leukopenia, thrombocytopenia)
  • 33. AML and MDS
  • 34. Myeloproliferative neoplasms
  • 35. Cerebral edema, hydrocephalus, malformations of the brain
  • 36. Dementias and neurodegenerative disorders
  • 37. Demyelinisation disorders
  • 38. Infectious diseases of the CNS
  • 39. Cerebrovascular diseases, intracranial haemorhages
  • 40. Glial central nervous system tumors
  • 41. Nonglial central nervous system tumors
  • 42. Anterior lobe pituitary tumours and their consequences. Posterior lobe syndromes. Disorders associated with hypopituarism (Sheehan syndrome, chromophobic adenoma, empty sella syndrome, suprasellar tumours)
  • 43. Inflammatory, tumorous diseases as well as disorders associated with hyperplasia of the thyroid gland
  • 44. Pathology of the parathyroid glands (hyperplasia, adenoma, causes of hypoparathyreoidism). Multiple endocrine neoplasms
  • 45. Causes and clinical consequences of hyperplasia and atrophy of the suprarenal gland. Cortical tumours of the suprarenal gland (morphology, clinical syndromes) Cortical insufficiency of the suprarenal gland. Tumors of the adrenal medulla.
  • 46. Pathogenesis and frequency of soft tissue tumours. Fibrous tumours and tumourlike lesions. Fibrosarcoma. Fibromatoses. Socalled fibrohistiocytic tumors.
  • 47. Tumours of adipose tissue and peripheral nerves, synovial sarcoma
  • 48. Tumours of smooth and striated muscle (leiomyoma, leiomyosarcoma, rhabdomyoma and rhabdomyosarcoma, types)
  • 49. Congenital malformations, inflammations and tumors of the penis
  • 50. Prostatitides. Hyperplasia of the prostate, complications
  • 51. Tumours of the prostate
  • 52. Congenital abnormalities and infammatory diseases of the testes. Pathology of the appendices of the testis (epidydimis, spermatic cord)
  • 53. Testicular tumours, classification, tumour markers
  • 54. Pathology of the vulva and vagina. Sexually transmitted diseases
  • 55. Inflammations, tumourlike lesions and tumours of the cervix. Carcinoma of the cervix (pathogenesis, pathomorphology, screening)
  • 56. Adenomyosis and endometriosis. Dysfunctional bleedings. Endometrial hyperplasia. Endometritises
  • 57. Diseases of the uterus and fallopian tubes
  • 58. Cysts and tumours of the ovaries (surface epithelial, germ cell, sex cordstromal tumours, tumours, metastases)
  • 59. Pathology of pregnancy I (implantation disorders, gestosis, trophoblastic tumours)
  • 60. Pathology of pregnancy II (transplacental infections, chromosomal aberrations)
  • 61. Mastitides (lactational, ductus ectasia, fat necrosis, galactocele). Mastopathies (fibrocystic change). Fibroepthelial tumours.
  • 62. Breast carcinoma. Pathogenesis, types, prognosis
  • 63. Melanocytic lesions
  • 64. Epithelial tumours of the skin
  • 65. Inflammatory skin diseases
  • 66. Hereditary, inflammatory and metabolic bone diseases
  • 67. Benign and malignant bone tumours
  • 68. Angina pectoris, chronic ischemic heart disease, sudden cardiac death
  • 69. Clinicopathology of acute myocardial infarction.
  • 70. Pathology of the valvular disorders (inflammatory and degenerative ones)
  • 71. Cardiomyopathies. Tumors and tumor-like conditions of the heart.
  • 72. Myocarditis. Pathology of the pericardium.
  • 73. Congenital heart diseases
  • 74. Types and clinicopathology of the aneurysms
  • 75. Pathogenesis, classification and clinicopathology of vasculitides. Vascular tumours
  • 76. Diseases of the upper airways
  • 77. Congenital anomalies of the lungs, atelectasis, acute lung injury
  • 78. Infectious disorders of the lower airways
  • 79. General characteristics and types of chronic obstructive lung diseases
  • 80. Chronic restrictive lung diseases
  • 81. Vascular diseases of the lung
  • 82. Lung tumors
  • 83. Pleural and mediastinal disorders

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