Definition and epidemiology
Subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) can be traumatic or nontraumatic. This topic will cover the nontraumatic, topic 19 will cover the traumatic. Traumatic SAH is more common than nontraumatic.
Nontraumatic SAH is one form of haemorrhagic stroke.
- Rupture of intracranial aneurysm in the circle of Willis
- Risk factors for developing aneurysm: smoking, female, hypertension, alcoholism, family history
- Risk factors for rupturing aneurysm: acute hypertension, strain
- Rupture of arteriovenous malformation or angiomas
Aneurysmal SAH accounts for 70% of nontraumatic SAH. Non-aneurysmal SAH is more common in younger patients.
SAH causes a characteristic headache called “thunderclap headache”, which is very sudden as is usually described by patients as the worst headache of their lives. Other symptoms include loss of consciousness, seizures, and focal neurological symptoms. Meningism (stiff neck, photophobia, vomiting), can occur due to blood in the CSF. Patients also usually have severe hypertension.
20% of patients have warning symptoms in the days before the SAH. These warning symptoms are usually transient and can be diplopia or headache.
Diagnosis and evaluation
SAH is a form of stroke, so native CT should be performed urgently. It will show hyperdense blood in the subarachnoid space.
If the CT is negative but the suspicion for SAH is still high, we can perform MRI or a lumbar puncture. LP will show yellowish/reddish CSF with RBCs.
Vascular imaging, by DSA or CT angiography, should be performed afterward to identify the source of the bleeding, in order to plan the treatment.
Transcranial doppler can be used to look for vasospasm.
As a stroke, the patient should be admitted to a stroke unit. The goal of the management is to treat and prevent the complications of SAH, especially rebleeding.
If vascular imaging shows aneurysmal SAH, we can do endovascular coiling of the aneurysm to prevent rebleeding. If transcranial doppler shows vasospasm we can use nimodipine to decrease it.
If the bleeding is caused by an arteriovenous malformation or an angioma it must be removed by irradiation, surgery, or endovascular treatment.
Supportive care is important. The BP should be lowered to 160 mmHg but not much lower.
- Rebleeding (common)
- Vasospasm leading to ischaemia
- Hypopituitarism (can occur long time after)
The prognosis is very poor. 10% don’t reach the hospital at all. The 30-day mortality rate is 46%, and many of those who survive sustain severe disability and decrease in quality of life.