Physiology 1

Last updated on July 14, 2020 at 14:52

  • 1. Describe the body fluid compartments and explain the methods used for measurement of body fluid volumes
  • 2. Describe the major plasma proteins and the other non-electrolytic constituents of blood and explain their function in the body
  • 3. Describe the intra- and extracellular ionic components and explain their physiological functions
  • 4. The structure, function and origin of erythrocytes
  • 5. Characterize the various leukocytes indicating their origins and functions
  • 6. Origin and function of blood platelets
  • 7. The basic structure and metabolism of haemoglobin and the metabolism of iron
  • 8. Describe the two pathways involved in the initiation of blood coagulation
  • 9. Specific mechanism of clot formation
  • 10. Describe the mechanism of fibrinolysis. Explain the significance of anticlotting mechanism
  • 11. Regulation of H+ ion concentration in the blood
  • 12. A-B-0 blood groups. The Rh blood types
  • 13. The role of leukocytes in the defence mechanism
  • 15. Generators and conductors of impulses in the heart. Refractory periods
  • 16. The sequence of events in the cardiac cycle
  • 17. The human electrocardiogram (ECG). Electrocardiography. Bipolar and unipolar leads
  • 18. The heart sounds. Phonocardiography (PCG)
  • 19. Cardiac output. Measurement, normal standards and physiological variations
  • 20. Metabolism and energetics of cardiac muscle
  • 21. Ventricular wall tension and the Laplace relationship
  • 22. The heart-lung preparation (Starling’s laws)
  • 23. Arterial blood pressure. Determinants of normal arterial blood pressure
  • 24. The arterial and the venous pulse. Basic principles of hemodynamics.
  • 25. Circulation through the capillaries
  • 26. The properties, production and the movement of lymph
  • 27. Circulation in the vein. Effect of gravity on circulation
  • 28. The pulmonary circulation. Control of lung vessels
  • 29. The coronary circulation
  • 30. Cerebral circulation. The concept of “blood-brain barrier”
  • 31. Splanchnic circulation
  • 32. Skeletal muscle circulation. Cutaneous circulation
  • 33. Nervous control of the heart
  • 34. Control mechanisms of the circulatory system. General considerations
  • 35. Local control of the vascular smooth muscle
  • 36. Autoregulation of blood flow in tissues and organs
  • 37. The function and importance of baroreceptors in the regulation of circulation
  • 38. Reflex control mechanisms of circulation
  • 39. Mechanisms of vasoconstriction and vasodilatation
  • 40. Mechanics of respiration (functions of respiratory muscles, compliance, intrathoracic pressures, respiratory volumes)
  • 41. Alveolar air, alveolar ventilation, dead spaces. Function of the respiratory passageways
  • 42. Gaseous exchange in the lungs and tissues
  • 43. O2 and CO2 transport in the body
  • 44. Peripheral and central regulatory mechanisms of respiration. Respiratory reflexes
  • 45. Chemical control of respiration. Acidosis, alkalosis
  • 46. Different types of hypoxia. Oxygen treatment. Mechanisms of acclimatisation. Nitrogen narcosis. Decompression sickness
  • 56. Dynamics of glomerular filtration. Glomerular filtration rate. Plasma clearance
  • 57. Renal blood flow. Clearance of PAH. Extraction ratio. Filtration fraction
  • 58. Regulation of renal blood flow and pressure. Renin-angiotensin system
  • 59. Reabsorption and secretion of different substances in the renal tubule. Methods for their investigation

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