Insulin pathway

Last updated on June 29, 2020 at 11:43

Abbreviation Name Function
PDE Phosphodiesterase Degrade cAMP to 5′-AMP which inhibits PKA and therefore the effect of glucagon and epinephrine
IRS Insulin receptor substrate Activates MAPK and PDE
PKB/Akt Protein kinase B (or Akt) Activated by PDK1, mediates many of the insulin functions.
MAPK MAP kinase Activate a protein cascade called the MAP kinase cascade, regulates many different effects
ISK Insulin-sensitive kinase Activated by insulin receptor, activates PP1 and PP2A
PP1 Phosphoprotein phosphatase 1 Activated by ISK, regulates glucose and glycogen metabolism
PP2A Phosphoprotein phosphatase 2A Insulin stimulates xylulose 5-phosphate synthesis, which directly activates PP2A. Regulates glucose, cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism.
GS Glycogen synthase Produces glycogen from UDP-glucose
GSK3 (or GSK) Glycogen synthase kinase Phosphorylates and inactivates Glycogen synthase
GPh Glycogen phosphorylase Degrades glycogen into glucose 1-phosphate
GPhK (or PhK) Glycogen phosphorylase kinase (or just phosphorylase kinase) Activates glycogen phosphorylase
PEPCK PEP carboyxykinase An essential enzyme in the gluconeogenesis
G6Pase Glucose 6-phosphatase An essential enzyme in the gluconeogenesis
PK Pyruvate kinase An essential enzyme in the glycolysis. Is only regulated by insulin in the liver.
ChREBP Carbohydrate response element binding protein A transcription factor that is activated by PP2A and increases transcription of PK, fatty acid synthase, and ACC in the liver, adipose tissue and kidney.
PI3K Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase An enzyme that produces the substrate that activates PDK1.

Phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1

An enzyme that produces the substrate that activates PKB.

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Hexokinase vs glucokinase

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Glucagon/Epinephrine/Protein Kinase A pathway

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