5. Energy, fluid and feeding requirements of the neonate

Page created on February 27, 2022. Not updated since.

Assessing proper feeding

By assessing the voiding and stooling patterns of the neonate, as well as the growth, we can evaluate whether the milk intake is adequate.

  • Hydration
    • A well-hydrated infant voids 1 – 2 times a day the first days, followed by 6 – 8 times a day.
    • The urine should be colourless.
    • The neonate should have moist mucous membranes and good skin turgor
  • Feeding
    • Stool should be passed ~4 times a day.
    • Initial weight loss after birth is common but should not exceed 10%. The birth weight should be regained by 10 – 14 days.
    • Normal feeding frequency is 8 – 12 times per day.
  • Growth
    • The growth rate over time should not stall
    • Normal growth in the first 3 months of life is 30 g/day
    • Normal increase in length in the first month is 2 – 4 cm
    • Weight should approximately double by month 6 and triple by month 12

Energy requirements

  • A neonate should receive 110 – 140 kcal/kg/day
    • Preterm and sick neonates have higher requirement
  • After the neonatal period, this requirement is 100 kcal/kg/day

Fluid requirements

  • Neonates drink approx. 200 – 700 mL/day of breastmilk, but the number varies wildly

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