47. Penal carcinoma

Organ: Penis


There is a greyish, exophytic mass on the glans of the penis.

Diagnosis: Carcinoma penis

Risk factors:

  • HPV infection (especially types 16, 18)
  • Poor hygiene
  • Phimosis (inability to retract prepuce)


Poor hygiene and/or phimosis predispose to balanitis, inflammation of the glans, which predisposes to carcinoma.

Penal carcinoma frequently spreads to the inguinal lymph nodes by lymphatic dissemination, or to the lung by haematogenous dissemination.

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46. Mixed germ cell tumor with seminoma and teratoma

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48. Carcinoma of the cervix

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