How to pass the exam

Page created on April 16, 2018. Last updated on March 11, 2020 at 17:40

You should know the MRTs very well (use flashcards), and also know what reaction is impaired in a few diseases. You can be asked questions about the smallest things, and some questions can be so vague you’re not even sure what they’re asking. You should always ask teachers to clarify questions you don’t understand. However, if you know the MRTs well, and know most of what’s written here, you should at least pass. In some topics, you might only need to know the summary. For each cofactor should you memorize 4 reactions that needs these cofactors. You are going to be asked about one or two diseases.

I recommend these flashcards:

You are going to get a question about ATP calculation, like “What is the ATP gain of degradation of hexanoyl-CoA to O2 and H2O?”. They can ask you about degradation of fatty acids, ketone bodies or intermediates in the glycolysis or TCA. The first two are very well explained on YouTube (search for fatty acid ATP calculation, it’s different for odd-chained and even-chained fatty acids), but if you get asked about PEP for example, you have to remember the MRTs well and follow PEPs pathway to TCA and remember how many NADH, FADH2, GTP and ATP are made on the way. This question is an easy 4 points if you know how to calculate. Always remember that 1 NADH = 2.5 ATP, 1 FADH2 = 1.5 ATP and 1 GTP = 1 ATP, and write always write them on the test, or you’ll lose points! Remember that the ATP calculation is slightly different if they the question ask about a fatty acid or fatty-acyl-CoA.

They do give partial points on the exam. You can get 4 points on each question. On the MRT part, there are 7 MRTs, which can give 28 points total. You pass with 21 points or more on this part. They are not very picky about water and H+ (you might get 2 or 3 points if you forget water in some reactions. water is very important in a few reactions, but not all), but they’re very picky about everything else. Double check every hydrogen, that each carbon has 4 bindings and so on.

You pass the exam with 71 points total, including semester points. Good luck.

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3 thoughts on “How to pass the exam”

  1. Hey! I have som questions about some earlier exam questions. This are:
    1. What is the reaction stimulating gyanylyl syclase?
    2. What is specific about proteins produced in the mitochondria?3. How is protein transported into the mitochondria? Describe it the transporters and
    3. Write the ATP-requiring steps of protein synthesis
    4.What is the ATP-independent transcription termination in prokaryotes?
    5. How does intracellular cholesterol regulate HMG-CoA reductase?
    6. Which reaction in gluconeogenesis can happen in both the cytosol and the mitochondria?
    7.How do we regenerate glycolytic NADH in aerob and anaerob conditions?
    8Give an example of a substrate phosphorylation.

    I understand if you can`t answer all of them, but it would be really great if you could answer some of them. Thank you for all your work.

    1. Hey. So.

      1. This is a difficult question to answer, because there isn’t really a reaction that stimulates GC. GC is stimulated when something binds to a receptor, or when something binds to guanylyl cyclase itself. NO (nitric oxide) stimulates soluble guanylyl cyclase, for example. Hormones like ANP and BNP bind to a receptor on the cell surface that activates guanylyl cyclase on the inside of the cell.

      2. There are multiple things to mention here. Proteins produced in the mitochondria are encoded by DNA inside the mitochondria. The mitochondrial DNA doesn’t have any introns.
      Important to keep in mind that the mitochondrial DNA codes for very few proteins, so many proteins that are used inside the mitochondria actually come from the nucleus.

      3. I don’t really know enough about this to answer, sorry.

      3. I’m not completely sure here, but the activation of the amino acids definitely requires ATP. Also, I think ATP are used during the introduction and translocation steps of translation.

      4. I think rho-independent termination doesn’t require ATP?

      5. Check here. Intracellular cholesterol causes HMG-CoA reductase to be proteolyzed.

      6. PEPCK

      7. I don’t really understand the question? NADH is regenerated from NAD+ in the citric acid cycle. I don’t understand why that would be different in aerob and anaerob conditions.

      8. Substrate phosphorylation is the “opposite” of oxidative phosphorylation, which is what occurs in the mitochondria. Substrate phosphorylation are the reactions that generate ATP independent of the protein-pump gradient in the mitchondria. They are phosphoglycerate kinase, pyruvate kinase and PEPCK, probably some others as well.

      Sorry I couldn’t give better answers. I’ve forgotten a lot and the questions the department comes up with are just bullshit.

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